THE POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN REEDS COMPOST AND ITS UTILIZATION IN IMPROVING SOIL FERTILITY
1Badariah, 2Riski Maulida Putri dan 3Galih Eka Aurellia
1Prodi Tadris Biologi FTK UIN STS Jambi
2,3Prodi Kimia FST UIN STS Jambi
Efforts to resolve land’s soil’s poor fertility could be conducted by organic substance addition. Organic substances such as compost, other than as a nutrient source could also improve soil’s physique, chemicals, and biology. One of the alternative organic substances’ potential resources is reeds. (Imperata cylindrica L.) Reeds biomass is a potential organic resource. According to Soerjani in Mala et al. (2000), Reeds would produce 7-18 ton/ha dry-weight biomass for its surface part. Reeds, according to Lubis in Syukron (2000), contain 1,97% N, 0,13% P, and 1,65% K. Reeds utilization effort as compost is expected to contribute to improve soil’s fertility to influence agricultural crops growth.
Reed composting also provide various growth hormone by improving microorganisms activities. Accoding to Atmojo (2003), Organic substance addition such as compost would improve microorganisms’ activities in soil that produce various hormones that could improve growth such as auxin, gibberellins, and cytokinin. Furthermore Setyorini (2005), state that, giving organic substances such as reed compost could improve peat soil’s KTK value thus nutrient availability in the soil increase. According to Kaderi (2004), giving organic substances such as compost could help the crop’s root to penetrate the soil deeper and wider thus the crop could absorb more nutrients and water. More nutrients and water absorbed by the crop would increase the crop’s growth which would influence the crop’s overall organ.
Badariah research (2018) shows that examined reeds compost have pH 6,83, C-Organic reached 31,45 %, 1,79 N-total, 17,56 C/N-ratio and 379,5 ppm P-availability. Reeds compost also contain 23,12 (me/100g) Ca, 0,41 (me/100g) Mg, 0,16 (me/100g) K, 0,85 (me/100g) Na, 2,54 ppm Fe, 0,19 ppm Cu, 5,89 ppm Zn and 7,05 ppm Mn. Compost conditions also differ before decomposition, where the produced compost is odorless and darker. These indicate that compost is ripe and ready to be used as a soil fertilizer. To be able to be used as soil fertilizer substances, compost should be stable (ripe). Several methods and parameter that is examined to determine compost stability degree are: (1) carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio); (2) stability toward heat; (3) reduction in organic substances; and (4) humification parameter. Other researchers show compost ripeness indicator which are C/N ratio determination, pH, KTK, Whereas natures that should be known at the farmer level are compost color and scent. Ripe compost would have dark brown color and earthy scent (Yang,1996).
Laboratory examination exhibit that reed compost contain organic substance consisting of several macros and micronutrient that is required for crop growth. This compost has high C-organics content and fulfilled organic compost requirements. C-organic content is an important element for organic compost because it is aimed to add soil’s organic substances. The content of soil’s organic substances that is dominated by red-yellow podzolic soil is known to have low organic substances. Soil’s C-organic content is very low nowadays which is under 2%, C-Organics content standard according to SNI: 19-7030-2004 compost is 9.8-32 % (Wahyono, 2011).
According to Harjowigeno in Cholik (2003), the result of reed compost research is categorized as good compared to Soil Nutrient Evaluation Criteria because it has very high C-organic content, very high nitrogen, low C/N ratio, very high P2O5 content, very high K2O, and very high Ca. These prove that reed could be used as compost substance. The high content of Nitrogen content in reed compost is because when composting is conducted, cow manure that contains ammonia which is the source of Nitrogen is mixed. The rich availability of Nitrogen occurs because of the decomposition process by microorganisms. The crop needs a P element to strengthen its root. P also has a role in energy transfer, photosynthesis process, metabolism, and respiration.
Potassium element has a role in crops’ assimilation process. The opening and closing mechanism of stomata is influenced by ion K existence, the crop’s physiology process will be well if the stomata are opening, especially CO2 fixation process that would produce assimilate to fulfill crop’s life necessities. Whereas the Ca element have a role in protein synthesis that is needed for crop cell division and enlargement, besides neutralizing organic acids produced in the crops metabolism process. If the Ca element exists inside crops, an increase in pH could activate the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme thus turgidity production in the guard cell increase and cause the stomata to open so that the assimilation process becomes easy.
Fe and Mg elements contained in reed compost highly support the forming of chlorophyll where the chlorophyll core is Mg, if Mg amount is sufficient then chlorophyll formation would go well, if the chlorophyll amount in the leaf is substantial then the photosynthesis process would go well when the environment factor support that factor. Likewise, Fe which is the core of cytochrome has a role in the crop’s assimilation process in producing energy that is used in the crop’s biochemistry process.
Other than the nutrient mentioned above, reed compost also contain other micro nutrients such as Cu and Mn. These elements have an important role in soil fertilizing and crop nutrients. Soil is a complex system that has a role as a crops life source consisting of water, air, and nutrients. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) is several examples of micro nutrients elements that are essential for crops because even though it is needed in a relatively small amount but their role in crop metabolism is huge. (Cottenie, 1983, Harmsen, 1977). However, several things needed to be noted in the crop relation which is every type of crop has different needs of micronutrients thus a little excess would be toxic for crops.
Badariah, 2018. Uji Kandungan Organik Pada Kompos Berbahan Dasar Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Mutu Pembungaan dan Buah Tanaman Mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.) di Polybag. Penelitian Prodi Tadris Biologi, FTK UIN STS Jambi.
Kaderi, H. 2004, Teknik Pengolahan PupukPelet dari Gulma sebagai Pupuk Majemuk dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Tanaman Padi, Buletin Teknik Pertanian 9 (2): 47-49.
Mala, Y., Hasan, N. dan Sahar, A. 2000. Pengaruh Aplikasi Kompos Alang-Alang dan Sumber Pupuk P Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Kacang Tanah di Lahan Kritis, Stigma8 (1): 36-40
Harmsen, K., 1977. Behavior of Heavy Metals in Soils.Agricultural research reports. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.
Setyorini, D. 2005, Pupuk Organik Tingkatkan Produksi Pertanian. Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian 27 (6): 13-15.
Wahyono, 2011. Kualitas Kompos dan POG dari Sampah Kota Memenuhi Standar Permentan No. 28 tahun 2009.
Yang, S.S. 1996. Preparation and characterization of compost.In Proceedingsof International Training Workshop on Microbial Fertilizers and Composting. October 15-22, 1996 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China. FFTC and TARI.